Aerating: Compaction: Localised; Reduced passage of air & build up of CO2; Reduce passage of water & drainage; Aeration improves surface drainage; Improves root activity, reduces moss; Alteration of soil texture by top dressing; When to aerate: Spring/summer: spike localised compaction; September: deeper, general & hollow-tines; Winter: localised to disperse standing water. Smaller lawn areas can be manually aerated using a form inserted into the soil. Insert tines to approximately four inches and push down – or rock back and forth a bit – loosening the soil, and then pull out. Repeat this process every 10cm until the entire lawn area is covered; For larger areas machine spikers are available “Big Willy” fish tail, solid or hollow tines available.