Storage/perennation by bulbs (Narcissus and Lilium):

Water storage (Sedum) – thick, waxy, cuticle cells store water in the leaf.

Sedum spectabile “Autumn Joy”.

Leaf Adaptations Limiting Water Loss: Common in plants from warm or windy climate, RHS – Thick waxy cuticle to reduce evaporation, e.g., Echeveria elegans;

RHS – Reduced leaf surface area, conifer needles; Pinus sylvestris RHS – Leaves covered in hairs to keep humidity close to the area of the stomata; Salvia argentea

Having fewer stomata; Having deep or extensive root systems; Having light, silver/grey foliage to reflect heat; Sunken stomata;Leaves that roll with the stomata on the inside, some grasses, e.g., Festuca glauca; Structural adaptations, e.g., Spartium junceum (Spanish broom) has very small leaves but the stem is dark green and photosynthesises; Spines, e.g., Opuntia polyacantha.

Protection by leaf spine (Berberis):

Climbing by tendrils (Lathyrus odoratus):

Twisting petioles (Clematis):