Comparison to include suitability of each material in practical and in design terms: in- situ concrete, paving (flags, block pavers, brick), wood (railway sleepers, log sections, bark) gravel, man-made decking materials.
HARD LANDSCAPING MATERIALS
Understand the effective and appropriate use of hard landscaping materials.
Hard landscaping predominantly uses hard materials, like stone, wood, concrete, bricks, paving, and metals, rather than “soft” soil, plants and planting.
How to use hard landscaping to create cohesion in garden design? Use identical materials to those that the house is built in for paths/walls; Reflect any motif or pattern used in the house, perhaps on a building or seat; Use local stone where available to link with the landscape/buildings or walls; Use a limited number of hard landscape materials; Consider the scale and proportion of features; Consider the use of colours and styles to be appropriate to the site.
NATURAL MATERIALS (LANDSCAPING)
MAN MADE MATERIALS (LANDSCAPING)
Hard wearing and maintenance free; Easily self-mixed and laid (available ready mixed for larger jobs); Adaptable (moulded or shuttered for differing uses). Can be coloured. Surface moulds can be used to give the impression of different materials; Different surfaces to suit use: Floated/smooth; Tamped/rough, ridges, good for grip on slopes; Brushed; Washed to expose aggregate, or aggregate rolled into the surface. Can be expensive for big areas; Needs good hard core foundation; Can weather and break up; If not level can have puddles – if not laid well, these can freeze, becoming a major hazard. see cast-concrete
Natural/soft. Can be formal, through to rustic informal. Consider the source of the wood in making a choice – local or imported from sustainable woodland – can be an issue with imported hard woods; Splinters can be a risk factor; Needs maintaining (cleaning off algae and oiling).
Man Made: Wrought iron, through to modern stainless steel (formal to informal) need for some to be maintained;
STAINLESS STEEL (LANDSCAPING)
HORIZONTAL ELEMENTS (LANDSCAPING)
Describe a range of horizontal elements: paths, steps, patio and decking. Compare the benefits and limitations of a range of materials for each of the above, including concrete, paving and wood:
Basically for carrying traffic – pedestrian/light machinery; Needs to be safe and usable in all conditions; Can be a major part of a design, linking areas together, leading the visitor through the garden, ornamental feature in its own right, can give sound to a garden (gravel), can enhance either formal or informal designs; As well as general access to areas/desire lines.
(pre-cast concrete/old quarry stone flooring – broken for crazy paving) Come in many shapes, sizes, textures, qualities and colours. Often made to look like natural stone or wood. Can be used to make geometric patterns, through to using as stepping stones. Can easily be used to create unity in the design (same slabs being used for paths and patio). Can be a cheaper option. Some can be heavy to use. May not be strong enough for heavy use. Can break when laying. Need planning to create geometric patterns.
Vast choice and range available – clay (best) or concrete – colours – shapes and patterns; If correctly laid, extremely strong and load bearing (good for drives); Can be lifted for work/repair and replaced to look the same; Needs to be laid correctly to take loads (possibly not so important for paths);
Harmonises well with old buildings but requires skill to install properly. Can be a trip and slip hazard if poorly laid.
Landscaping: Natural look for woodland paths; Smell/pine; Local can be cheap; Can become messy/water logged; Can need to be topped up; Not hard wearing or load bearing.
As BOM Good effect on heavy soils if dug in; No food value. Can deplete N.
Gives sound/atmosphere/style; Can be a cheap and easy option; Not easy to walk on or push pushchair on (depth); Can pick up on shoes and come indoors; Slippery on slopes;
SELF BINDING GRAVEL
Self-Binding Gravel (gravel and fines mixture):
Hogging (gravel, fines and clay mixture);
Can be rolled to give a reasonable durable surface;
Cheap option if a good local source available;
Can go soft when wet.
dust in self-binding-gravel
gravel, fines and clay mixture
COTSWOLD STONE CHIPPINGS
BLUE SLATE CHIPPINGS
Can be a simple means of going from one level to another; Dealing with a gentle slope; Ideally, a feature in their own right.
Needs to be designed correctly to have regular even steps, riser 15 cm, tread 25 cm. Treads must not collect water; Can be cast in concrete; Brick riser’s slab treads; Sleepers; Pole riser’s bark treads (rustic informal).
riser 15 cm, tread 25 cm.
riser 15 cm, tread 25 cm.
STEPS TO DWELLING
Seating/outdoor living area often adjacent to the house; Sun versus shade; Construction usually slabs/bricks/pavers; If against a wall must be 15 cm below damp course, sloping away, so as not to catch water (1:100). Lawn may need a drain so as not to become water logged in winter.
Patio made of decking wood; Often raised, providing a place to view the garden at a commonly raised height in relation to other garden areas; Uses ridged, treated planking; Cheap option; Can become slippery; Needs on-going maintenance/cleaning; Splinters can be a hazard if cheap un-planed wood used;
NON SLIP DECKING
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