Exemplar: for materials;the risk of slipping on wood decking minimised by specifying non-slip varnishing materials; risk of splinters by specifying planed/sanded timber.

Dark or shaded paths: risk of tripping/falling causing injury. Risk reduction – designing a new route for the path away from trees; “Lines of sight” coming out onto roads (causing poor visibility): risk to pedestrians being hit and injured/hitting other vehicles causing damage and injury. Risk reduction – careful use of plants, taking into account their mature size, NOT relying on hard pruning.

Hazard – steepness of the slope; Risk of slipping down the slope causing grazes or broken bones; Overcome by terracing with retaining walls, access by winding paths with shallow gradients, steps with hand rails on steps, and use of non-slip surfaces on steeper slopes.

Risk reduction – DO you need the feature … as a pond pool, or use a bubble fountain instead? Ponds and pools should be in full vision if used in a design. May be filled with sand in the years when young children are in the family, being filled with water later when the risk is considered less???

Drowning, sprinklers systems/drift from fountains making paths slippery. Puddles freezing in winter/slippery (trips and slips causing injury); Drowning see above; Wet paths (during use, be careful where sprinklers are placed, plan to install sprinkler systems that are time controlled to operate in the early night time, so paths will be dry by morning. Exclude the public. Put up warning notices. Switch off fountains if drift onto paths is observed; Puddles – use porous/draining material for their construction. Ensure surfaces are installed with a camber or slope to ensure puddles do not form.

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