State what is meant by seasonal displays including when the plants can be planted out. The terms Hardy and Half-hardy should be defined in relation to temperature tolerance (either in degrees Celsius or Zones) as well as plant husbandry.

BEDDING Bedding, in horticulture, refers to the temporary planting of fast-growing plants into flower beds to create colourful, temporary, seasonal displays, during spring, summer or winter. Plants used for bedding are generally annuals, biennials or tender perennials; succulents and tropical plants are gaining in popularity. A plant that has already been grown to blooming or near-blooming size before being planted out, usually in a formal area for seasonal display;

Bedding plants are really all plants that, irrespective of their growing habits, are used to make a temporary show;

For example, hardy bulbs (Hyacinths and Tulips), hardy and half-hardy perennials (Chrysanthemums), and even tender shrubs (Castor Oil Plant);

But ‘bedding’ is usually taken to mean those half-hardy annuals or half-hardy perennials planted out to make a splash of colour in the summer, spring or winter;

HARDY ANNUAL Can be sown in situ

HALF HARDY ANNUAL A tender annual usually sown under protection early in the season then possibly planted out. Half-hardy perennials / annuals (tender perennials / annuals);

Will not survive frost and must be brought indoors during the winter;

Examples: Pelargonium, Fuchsia, and Heliotrope;

Individual microclimates and good free-draining soil can make an enormous difference to their ability to survive the winter;

Half-hardy annual plants can survive a couple of brushes with chilly night temperatures (35 – 45ºF) and light frost, but anything colder will turn them to mush;

Just like hardy annuals, the longer they’ve had to get used to the


HARDY PLANT Capable of withstanding cold or extreme weather conditions all year round when grown outside.

TENDER PLANT A plant not capable of surviving cold or extreme weather. May include perennials and annuals.

TROPICAL PLANT Bedding display made of a range (mainly large plants) of half-hardy, and tender annual and perennial plants to recreate a jungle effect. Tropical bedding displays can present a tapestry of magnificent colours and textures with plants that were popular in Victorian gardens and traditional bedding schemes;

With their bold leaves and distinctive colours, the stars are always Cannas, Coleus, and Begonia; Many flowering plants also provide vivid colour while maintaining tropical appeal like Fuchsias, Hibiscus, and Canna;

There are a number of foliage plants that can be incorporated into the tropical border;

Foliage plants give tropical borders height and texture, while mimicking the look and feel of a real jungle oasis;

Anything ranging through from Hostas, Ferns and Elephant Ears to Bamboos, Palms and Ornamental Grasses – the possibilities are endless;

Examples: Canna indica, Ricinus communis.

EDGING PLANT Low growing plants positioned at the rim of the bed or border; Dwarf plants up to 20cm

GROUNDWORK PLANT Medium-height varieties reaching 8” – 2’ filling most of the bed, planted according to size 20-30 cm apart;


DOT PLANT These are plants, usually of a contrasting shape, used through the groundwork to break it up and give a different texture or shape. Intermediate in height between the groundwork and standards;

[Erysimum cheiri Primula vulgaris]

[Primula vulgaris Viola x wittrockiana]

MISSING EXAMPLES GIVE_EXAMPLES [2] : half-hardy-annual

[Canna indica Fatsia japonica]




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