To include control of annual and perennial weeds; pruning to include timing and methods for named Spring flowering shrub (e.g. Forsythia x intermedia ‘Lynwood’), Summer flowering shrub (e.g. Buddleja davidii) and a Winter stem specimen (e.g. Cornus alba); checking protection and ties, stakes; control of aphids, powdery mildew and blackspot on roses; coral spot on shrubs; canker and honey fungus on trees.
Reasons for Pruning: To maintain healthy growth (health pruning); To establish and maintain a shape (formative pruning); To promote flowering growth, foliage, stems for colour; To control size?
Types of Pruning (Shrubs), Four Main Methods: Stooling (for growth) spring; Renewal (to maintain flowering) after flowering; Formative; And health pruning.
When to Prune: Deciduous trees and large shrubs: Deciduous trees (ones that lose their leaves in winter) are usually pruned in autumn and winter. In some cases, for example with Magnolias and Walnuts, pruning is best done in late summer, as healing is quicker; Trees such as Prunus sp, which are prone to silver leaf disease are best pruned from April to July when the disease spores are not on the wind, and the tree sap is rising rather than falling (which pushes out infection rather than drawing it in); Some trees can bleed sap if pruned in late winter and early spring. Although seldom fatal, this is unsightly and can weaken the tree. Birches and Walnuts often bleed if pruned at the wrong time.
Evergreen trees & shrubs: Evergreens seldom need pruning, although dead and diseased branches can be removed in late summer.
Pruning at planting time: Prune damaged, diseased branches and roots and formative pruning.
How to Prune Trees: Prior to undertaking any work, it is essential to ascertain if a Tree Preservation Order (TPO) is in place or if the tree is in a Conservation Area; If either is the case, seek permission from your local council before beginning work; Potentially dangerous limbs can, in theory, be removed without permission but the penalties for breaching the legislations, inadvertently or not, can be severe; Safety is of prime importance when working with trees, so make an honest appraisal of your capabilities, assess the area in which any branches may fall and erect warning signs or barricades if necessary before beginning; If in any doubt engage a professionally qualified tree surgeon or arboriculturist; Take a step back and decide what needs to be done to produce a balanced, attractive tree; Work with the natural habit of the tree to shorten or remove branches; Going against the tree’s natural habit produces ungainly trees that lack grace; Always start by removing damaged, diseased branches.
How to Remove Branches, Limbs and Roots: Wear protective gloves and, if necessary, eye and head protection; When cutting a stem, cut just above a healthy bud, pair of buds or side shoot. Where possible, cut to an outward facing bud or branch to avoid congestion and rubbing of branches; Make your cut 0.5cm (¼in) above the bud. Beware of cutting too close, as this can induce death of the bud. Beware of cutting too far from the bud, as this can result in dieback of the stub and entry of rots and other infections; When removing larger limbs, make an undercut first about 20-30cm (8-12in) from the trunk, and follow this with an overcut. This will prevent the bark tearing, leaving a clean stub when the branch is severed; Then remove the stub, first making a small undercut just outside the branch collar (the slight swelling where the branch joins the trunk), followed by an overcut to meet the undercut, angling the cut away from the trunk to produce a slope that sheds rain; Avoid cutting flush to the trunk as the collar is the tree’s natural protective zone where healing takes place; There is no need to use wound paints, as they are not thought to contribute to healing or prevent disease. The exception is Plums and Cherries (Prunus sp), where wound paint may be used to exclude silver leaf disease spores.
RHS PRUNING GROUPS
Suggested groupings of plants requiring similar pruning techniques.
WINTER INTEREST STEM
Quick mulches - Old compost, coarse compost, strawy manure -Can be intended to break down and become Humus over a season. Slow breakdown mulches, Bark, wood shaving, shredded paper, will break down slowly – several seasons but used mostly for annual weed control and prevention of capping of soils. As they break down they will use nitrogen in decay process so reduce fertility temporarily.
Mulching (materials laid over the soil): Conserves moisture; Supresses annual weeds; Provides plant food; Looks nice; Best applied when the soil is moist and warm, usually early April.
Organic Materials: Ideally 10cm deep; Most organics like FYM and compost are good as they provide plant foods but only last a season, with the exception of bark chip which has no food but lasts up to 5 seasons.
Materials laid over the soil; Organic materials ideally 10cm deep; Conserves moisture; Suppresses annual weeds; Provides plant foods; Can look nice; Best applied when the soil is moist and warm, usually early April; Most organics like FYM and compost are good as they provide plant foods, but only last a season, although bark chip has no food but last up to 5 seasons.
Inorganic Alternatives: Polythene (black) needs to be UVI inhibited: Works well; Conserves moisture; Supresses annual weeds and perennials; Black warms the soil; Provides no plant foods; Does not look nice (can be used under a thin layer of nicer looking material such as bark/gravel or cocoa shell); Can puddle as water cannot go through; Holds soil very wet underneath so soil structure is damaged; Long lasting.
Woven Fibres: As polythene but draining and breathable.
Gravel: Looks better, but should be appropriate to surrounding stone. Needs to be thick to stop light going through and allowing weeds to germinate; Not good for small wheels (push chairs); Good over woven fibres; Long lasting.
Glass: As gravel; Brighter colours?? (graveyard look??).
ROSE BLACK SPOT
Black Spot of Rose – Bayer Multi Rose
Canker (Bacterial Canker) Cherries – Bordeaux Mixture;
Coral Spot – prune out if seen – practice good pruning cuts;
Honey Fungus – no control except stump removal.
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