- pH - acid to alkaline, measured on the pH scale. On larger gardens different areas may give differing results due to natural conditions/ importation of soil, etc:
- Affects which plants will grow naturally in the area, or what alterations you might consider.
- Texture – soil type by name – sandy/loam/clay – by hand testing:
- Affects which plants will grow naturally in the area, or what alterations you might consider, and how to manage the soil.
- Structure – especially in cultivated areas such as a vegetable garden.
- Drainage – water moving through the soil:
- Sandy soils: fast natural movement > dry site/planting (may be improved by adding old organic matter);
- Clay soils: slow > wetter site/planting (may be improved by digging and adding young organic matter);
- High water table – artificial drainage system may be considered to alter the situation.